Working with Kelly Gallagher and Amy Jaffe at the Climate Policy Lab at Tufts University, I am examining the “cement-steel-infrastructure” interface of the Belt and Road Initiative. I am arguing that the literature on decarbonization and energy transitions focuses on the energy system but misses out on the complimentary industries that generate massive amounts of CO2 emissions and inextricably linked with the “infrastructure development” aspirations of many countries in the Global South. Here, I am looking at the domestic expansion of cement and the outward expansion of steel industries in the Global South that generate these emissions.